Login Page code using struts 1.3 example

Building applications using Struts adopts model view controller (MVC) architecture which is used to separate the model (application logic that interacts with a database) from the view (HTML / JSP) and the controller which helps to maintain / organise the code powerful & easily. Now we are going to build a Login Page using Struts. The following files are used to build the Login application using struts .

login.jsp – > JSP page which accepts Login Name & Password

success.jsp – > If the login name & password entered matches with the database username & password , the success.jsp is loaded

web.xml – > Action servlet , struts-config.xml , welcome html / jsp and more is defined in web.xml file.

struts-config.xml – > Contains the XML which is used to configure struts frame work for login application.

LoginAction.java – > contains code to process the request from the login page.

LoginForm.java – > this is a class file which is extended by ActionForm class that captures and transfers data to and from login page.

ApplicationResource.properties – > Contains error messages, strings, labels. Can be changed without recompile.

Now let us see the actual code involved in these files to develop login page application . In this application , ActionForm , Dispatch Action are used.


 <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" >
 <HTML >
 <HEAD >
 <%@ taglib uri="/WEB-INF/struts-html.tld" prefix="html" % >
 <%@ taglib uri="/WEB-INF/struts-bean.tld" prefix="bean" % >
 <%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" pageEncoding="ISO-8859-1" % >
 <TITLE >login.jsp </TITLE >
 </HEAD >
 <script language="javascript" >
 function submitForm()
 </script >
 <body > 
 <html:form name="loginForm" type="test.javaonline.forms.LoginForm" method="post" scope="request" action="/login.do" onsubmit="return submitForm()" > 
 <html:hidden property="method" value="processLogin" / >
 <html:errors / > 
 Enter Login Name : <html:text name="loginForm" property="loginId" / > 
 Enter Password : <html:password name="loginForm" property="passWord" / > 
 <html:button property="dfd" value="Login" onclick="submitForm()" / >
 </html:form > 
 </body >
 </HTML >

In the above page one tage <html:errors/ > which is used to display errors returned by the server.

web.xml : ( to mention Action servlet , struts-config.xml , welcome html / jsp)

if we want to use the login.jsp as a wecome page , then it is to defined in web.xml as follows.


<welcome-file-list >
 <welcome-file >login.jsp </welcome-file >
 </welcome-file-list >


struts-config.xml binds together model, view and controller. It contains XML to configure the struts for the login application.

 <struts-config >
 <form-beans >
 <form-bean name="loginForm" type="test.javaonline.forms.LoginForm" >
 </form-bean >
 </form-beans >

 <action name="loginForm" scope="request" path="/login" type="test.javaonline.actions.LoginAction" validate="true" input="login.jsp" parameter="method" >
 <forward name="success" path="/success.jsp" > </forward >
 <forward name="failure" path="/login.jsp" > </forward >
 </action >
 </action-mappings >
 <!-- Message Resources -- >
 <message-resources parameter="test.javaonline.resources.ApplicationResources"/>
 </struts-config >

In the above lines , LoginForm is the ActionForm. validate=true sothat validate method in the LoginForm is called for the login.jsp , parameter=”method” is used to pass the method in the action class to be called as we are using dispatchaction.


LoginForm is the Action Form (bean) whic is used to declare form fields and define getter / setter methods of the fields that captures and transfers data to and from the login page. validate method also defined in the action class which is automatically called to validate the fields declared in the class. reset method is used to reset the values of the fields declared in the action form class.

package test.javaonline.forms;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionErrors;
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionForm;
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionMapping;
public class LoginForm extends ActionForm {
  private String loginId="";
  private String passWord="";
  private String method="";
 public void reset(ActionMapping mapping, HttpServletRequest request) {
 public ActionErrors validate( ActionMapping mapping,  HttpServletRequest request) {
  ActionErrors errors = new ActionErrors();
  if ((loginId == null) || (loginId.length() == 0)) {
    errors.add("loginId", new org.apache.struts.action.ActionError("errors.loginId.required"));
   if ((passWord == null) || (passWord.length() == 0)) {
   errors.add("passWord", new org.apache.struts.action.ActionError("errors.passWord.required"));
    return errors;
 public String getLoginId() {
   return loginId;
 public String getPassWord() {
  return passWord;
 public void setLoginId(String string) {
  loginId = string;
 public void setPassWord(String string) {
  passWord = string;
 public String getMethod() {
  return method;
 public void setMethod(String string) {
  method = string;


Contains the class code which process the requests from the login page. Action form is passed to this method (processLogin in our example) , the values are processed by application logic that interacts with a database which is is called from here.

package test.javaonline.actions;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionError;
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionErrors;
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionForm;
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionForward;
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionMapping;
import org.apache.struts.actions.DispatchAction;
import test.javaonline.forms.LoginForm;

public class LoginAction extends DispatchAction {
 public ActionForward processLogin(ActionMapping mapping,ActionForm form,HttpServletRequest request,HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception {
  ActionErrors errors = new ActionErrors();
  ActionForward forward = new ActionForward();
  LoginForm loginForm = (LoginForm) form;
  LoginDAO loginDAO = new LoginDAO();
  String target="";
  try {
     String loginid=loginForm.getLoginId();
     String password=loginForm.getPassWord();
    // loginValidate has Data access logic, password verification logic 
     boolean success = loginDAO.loginValidate(loginid, password);     
      if (success)
    // Statements for Session creation and Others .Also business logic funtion /          Data access function  is called from here 
        errors.add("invalidlogin", new ActionError("errors.invalid.login"));
    } catch (Exception e) {
      errors.add("name", new ActionError("id"));
  if (!errors.isEmpty()) {
    saveErrors(request, errors);
    System.out.println("In Error");
    forward = mapping.findForward("failure");
    } else {
      forward = mapping.findForward("success");
  return (forward);


ApplicationResource.properties – > Contains error messages , strings , labels . Can be changed without recompile

errors.loginId.required = <h5 > <font color="red" >Login Name is required. </font > <h5 >
errors.passWord.required = <h5 > <font color="red" > Password is required </font > <h5 >
errors.invalid.login = <h5 > <font color="red" > Invalid Login </font > <h5 >

These errors are added to ActionErrors object .For example Suppose if you give login name blank, then the error “errors.loginId.required” is added . The errors are displayed in the JSP using <html:errors/> tag

Output :


1. if we enter login name blank &amp; password blank , the error message is displayed Login Name is required & Password is required

2. if we enter login name and password blank , the error message displayed is Password is required

3. if we enter login name & password , then it matches with database login name &amp; password , if both matches , then success otherwise the error message “invalid login” is displayed.

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